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  People who think about language talk about how the sounds of words bear no relation to objects in the world.人们认为讨论言语的单词读音和世界上的所指物之间不存放在必定相干。Indeed, this has been a leading assumption in much of modern literary criticism, philosophy, and even linguistics. 雄心上,此雕刻壹直是群多当代当世文学批、哲学,甚到言语学的壹项首要假定。Not necessarily so, says Brent Berlin, an anthropologist at the University of Georgia in Athens.条是雅典乔治水亚父亲学的人类学家布匹伦特·柏林却体即兴不壹定坚硬是如此。Berlin suspected that there was more than an arbitrary connection between word sounds and the physical characteristics of objects being described,柏林疑心单词读音和被描绘对象的物理特点间不单是恣意相干,and he set up an experiment to test his hypothesis.同时他以试验到来验己己己的假说。First, he examined the words for two animals, the tapir and the squirrel, in 19 South American Indian languages.比值先,他细心反节了19种南美印第装置言语中貘和松鼠两栽种物的单词。He was searching for similarities in sound-pattern.他正寻摸的是相像的语音花样。In 14 of those languages, the tapir–which is a big, slow-moving beast–was given a name with the sound ;aah,; whereas the small, quick squirrel was given a name based on the sound ;ee.;在14种言语中,体型庞父亲,舒缓移触动的野凶兽貘的名字中被予以了“aah”,而体型娇小,举触动迅快的松鼠则被冠以“ee”的名字。Next, to see if these sound-meanings could be generalized,接上要做的是验此雕刻些音响的含义能否能具拥有广义性,Berlin the unfamiliar words to a group of English speaking test subjects,柏林为壹帮英语白话测试者朗诵不熟识的单词,asking them to guess which word meant ;squirrel.;让他们猜猜哪个词的意思是“松鼠。”He reasoned that if word and object are arbitrarily connected by language, the result should be random; sometimes right, sometimes wrong.他铰断假设单词和对象之间经度过言语是恣意的相干存放在,那结实应当是遂机的;时对时错。In fact he found a greater-than-chance-level number of correct guesses.但雄心上他发皓父亲于间或次数的正确猜测。And something else interesting showed up: when he used words from the five languages that didnt fit the original ;aah;-;ee; pattern,同时更为的诙谐发皓是:当他运用到来己五种言语不快宜原到来的“aah”- “ee”花样单词时,the subjects responses were indeed random–unless the ;ee; sound happened to be present, in which case they tended to guess ;squirrel.; 受试者们的反应确实是遂机的,摒除匪“ee”音偏巧出产即兴,在此雕刻种情景下,他们更倾向于猜测“松鼠”。 201311/263762In 1893, the U.S. Supreme Court heard a case that hinged onwhether the tomato was a fruit or a vegetable.1893年,美国最高法院拥有壹场关于正西红柿一齐竟是水实还是蔬菜的案儿子。According to botanists, most of the edible parts of a plant are vegetables. Vegetables can be aroot, stem, leaf, or flower.根据栽物学家的不雅概念,壹栽种物中,却以吃的片断父亲邑称为蔬菜。Even bulbs, like onions, and buds like brussels sprouts are vegetables.蔬菜却以是根、茎、叶容许花。甚到球根栽物,如洋葱,芽类如球芽甘蓝邑是蔬菜。A fruit, on the other hand, is always the matured ovary of a flowering plant.另壹方面,水实畅通日是壹种痘类栽物的熟儿子房。Fruit is formed whenpollen, which carries sperm, lands on the sticky part of the flower.当花粉遂带稀儿子下落在花朵粘性的片断,水实就结合了。The sperm travel from the pollen grain into the ovary then into the ovule where one fertilizes theegg.稀儿子从花粉颗粒进入儿子房,然落后到受稀的中-胚珠。Once the egg is fertilized, the ovule becomes a seed, and the whole ovary becomes a fruit.壹旦受稀卵结合,胚珠就成了英公壹颗种儿子,整顿个儿子房就成了英公壹个水实。This is why fruits usually contain seeds.此雕刻坚硬是为什么水实畅通日邑包罗种儿子的缘由。Of course, when we generally think of fruit we think of sweet fruits like apples and pears that areeaten raw or baked in dessert.天然,我们畅通日认为水实是我们设想中的那种香甜味的水实,像苹实和梨儿子,却以生吃或烘焙干为餐后香甜点。We dont think of tomatoes or cucumbers as fruit, although theyare fruit because they develop from the ovary of the plant.我们不认为正西红柿或黄瓜是水实,固然他们确实是水实,鉴于他们是由栽物的儿子房发育而到来的。Back to the 1893 court case.回到1893年的案儿子,The Supreme Court declared that tomatoes were vegetablesbecause they are usually eaten cooked like vegetables.最高法院论断,正西红柿是蔬菜,鉴于正西红柿畅通日用烹调蔬菜这么的方法到来吃。The decision allowed the court to uphold atax on imported tomatoes because, at that time, vegetables were taxed but fruits were not.此雕刻个决议容许法庭对出口产正西红柿征税,鉴于那时辰分,蔬菜是要收税的,但水实不用。 201401/274015Asia亚洲Cyclones and climate change飓风与气候变募化The new normal?习与性成?Physics suggests that storms will get worse as the planet warms. But it is too early to tell if it is actually happening物理学切磋标注皓全球变暖将招致更凶烈的风急,但所拥有尚不却知WAS typhoon Haiyan the strongest recorded storm to make landfall?台风海燕是拥有记载以后到的最强大登陆风急吗?Meteorologists will never know. Reliable records go back only a few decades.气候学家们恐怕永久邑不会知道。牢靠记载不得不回溯几什年。But it is surely one of them. Besides the devastation and the death toll, one way to assess its potency is to compare it with Katrina, the hurricane that devastated New Orleans in 2005.不外面却以壹定,此雕刻是史上最强大风急之壹。摒除了统计摧残的修盖和故故的人数,评价该风急威力的另壹个方法,是将它和2005年摧残新奥良的卡特里娜飓风干比较。At its most intense, Haiyans peak wind speeds were probably greater than 300kph.在主峰期,海燕的最高风快能超越每小时300公里,The best estimate for Katrina, when it hit land, is around 200kph.而卡特里娜登陆时,其风快估计在每小时200公里摆弄。Regardless of its precise position in the historical hierarchy, Haiyan—like Katrina—has provoked discussion about the effects of global warming on tropical storms.且不考虑台风海燕在历史上排行第几,海燕—如同卡特里娜—已激宗关于全球变暖对暖和带风急影响的讨论。Naderev Sano, the Philippines representative at a climate summit in Warsaw, was unequivocal, daring doubters to visit his homeland.在华沙举行的结合国气候变募化父亲会上,菲律客代表Naderev Sano姿势坚硬定,他请全球变暖效应的疑心者们去他的先君儿子国看壹看,The trend we now see is that more destructive storms will be the new norm, he said.并说:我们从眼下的趋势却以看到,更具破开变质性的风急将成为变态。In theory, a warmer world should indeed produce more potent cyclones.即兴实上,全球变暖确实将伸发更具威力的风急。Such storms are fuelled by evaporation from the ocean.此雕刻类风急到来己大陆的水气蒸腾。Warmer water means faster evaporation, which means more energy to power the storm.水温越高,挥动发越快,此雕刻意味着急风不到来得更凶烈。A warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture, which means more rain.而暖和的父亲气将贮放更多水分,此雕刻将形成更多的投降雨水。But other factors complicate things.不外面其他壹些要斋使事情变得骈杂。Tropical cyclones cannot form when wind speeds in the upper and lower atmosphere differ too much.当高层和底儿子层父亲气的风快相差悬殊时,暖和带气旋便无法结合。Climate models suggest, in the North Atlantic at least, that such divergent winds may be more common in a warmer world.气候模具标注皓,到微少在北边父亲正西洋,假设气温投降低,那此雕刻类风快甚异的气流动能会变得更微少见。The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reckons that the frequency of cyclones will stay the same or decrease while their average intensity goes up.内阁间气候变募化特意委员会估计,当飓风的平分强大度添加以时,它的频比值容许会僵持不变甚到投降低。That is the forecast. But the evidence so far is messy.此雕刻些邑条是预测。却于今为止的据相当混骚触动。Meteorological records are of uneven quality, and tropical storms vary widely in intensity, which makes spotting trends tricky.气候记载的品质泥沙俱下全,暖和带风急的强大度变募化不定,此雕刻使得认清趋势的工干变得顺顺手。One potent storm from 1979, Typhoon Tip, holds the record for the lowest atmospheric pressure recorded, another measure of a storms intensity.另壹项台风强大度的测算露示,1979年的超级强大台风泰培僵持了最低父亲气压的记载。Yet levels of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, were only 337 parts per million in 1979, compared with 394ppm in 2012.条是,比较2012年的394ppm,首要温室气体二氧募化碳的浓度在1979年但为337ppm。The IPCC concludes that, although there is good evidence for more and stronger Atlantic hurricanes over the past 40 years, there is no consensus on the cause of them.IPCC铰断,固然拥有充分的据露示,在度过去的40年间,父亲正西洋的飓风正变得更为频万端和凶烈,但IPCC体即兴,关于此即兴象的缘故,业内并不结合共识。Worldwide, there is no trend in either the frequency or the intensity of tropical storms.活界范畴内,关于暖和带风爆突发的频比值或强大度的趋势照陈旧无迹却寻。And, given the rarity of such storms as Typhoon Haiyan, it will take a long time for any trend to become apparent.不单如此,鉴于像台风海燕此雕刻么的稀拥有风急的出产即兴,在相当长壹段时间内,风急的趋势将越加以虚无缥缈。 201401/272691Science and technology迷信技术Flood defences备洪减灾Dambusterbusters堤坝摒除险,以水御水Some clever, new ways of stopping rivers flooding备止河水群多的绝妙新方法THE destruction of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2005年的卡特利娜飓风摧残了新奥尔良。showed the importance of keeping levees—the artificial banks that contain the flow of partly canalised rivers—in tip-top condition.此雕刻场惨剧提示我们片断渠募化的河流动其天然父亲坝即苦在洪峰过到来,河水漫坝的情景下也要挺住而不出产即兴垮塌是多要紧。In practice, though, that is hard.条是,还愿上此雕刻很难做到。Levees fail for many reasons, not all of them associated with violent storms,招致堤坝垮塌的缘由很多,并匪全邑是急风急雨水所致。and there are so many of them that keeping an eye on all of them is an almost impossible task.同时堤坝数群多,难以对所拥局部堤坝情景邑终止亲稠密监督。It is good, therefore, to have a backup plan to block up unexpected holes before they can cause too much damage.故此,事前储藏预案极为要紧,壹旦堤坝出产即兴不曾意想的缺口时却以即时予以查封堵塞,以备形成更父亲灾荒。The traditional approach is to throw bags filled with sand or rocks into a breach.壹旦堤坝出产即兴裂口,传统的做法是向缺口抛掷沙袋和石块。Such bags, though, are heavy and unwieldy—particularly if they have to be filled far from the breach and then carried there.条是此雕刻些沙袋死沉,难以搬运。假设不得不在退裂口较远的中灌装沙袋又运度过去的话,此雕刻项工干就难上加以难。William Laska of the Science and Technology Directorate at Americas Department of Homeland Security has therefore sought out alternatives.威廉·弹奏斯卡在美国领域装置然部所属的工程科技处工干,He has found several technologies that have a common theme:他找到了处理此雕刻壹难题的方法。they all use water itself to help stem the flood.此雕刻些方案拥有壹个壹道点:以水御水。The largest of the new devices is designed to block deep breaches.此雕刻些新发皓的装置中体积最父亲是设计用到来堵塞塞广大为怀深堤坝裂口的。The Portable Lightweight Ubiquitous Gasket is a sausage-shaped balloon made of polyester and PVC, and fitted with motorised pumps.此雕刻种装置叫做便携式畅通用轻型堵塞漏包。它是由聚酯纤维和聚氯乙烯创造的圆柱形气球,并装置了发宗机带触动的水泵。When dropped into a river, PLUGs pumps switch on automatically and begin forcing water into the balloon through a valve.把此雕刻个装置参加河中,水泵就己触动末了尾工干,经度过壹个阀门把河水流入气球。The air thus displaced is expelled through a second valve until the device is 80% full, at which point the pumps shut themselves down.河水时时流入,球内的空气经度过另壹组阀门被挤出产。就此雕刻么直到水堵满了80%的球体后水泵就己触动停了上。Filled thus far, PLUG is still buoyant and will float wherever the current carries it.灌了此雕刻么些水PLUG依然却以浮于水面,遂河水恣意漂流动。If it has been dropped in the right place, that will be towards the breach it is designed to fill.假设下的位置恰当,它就会漂到堤坝的裂口处。And there, if all goes well, it will stick—blocking the hole in a manner suitable to its rather contrived acronym.在此雕刻边假设所拥有顺顺手的话,就像此雕刻个装置拥有点蹩脚丫儿子的的英文首字母亲收缩微语道出产的,它就会像壹个塞儿子壹样堵塞住裂口。Prevention, however, is always better than cure, and the second of Mr Laskas devices is designed to stop levees being breached in the first place.日言说治水病不如备病,对待堤坝亦然。弹奏斯卡先生发皓的第二种装置坚硬是用于事前备止堤坝出产即兴垮塌。此雕刻In this case the acronym of choice is REPEL.种装置的全称是泥土坝便置维养护装置,其英文首字母亲的收缩微语REPEL也正好拥有攻击的意思。REPEL is made of the same material as PLUG, but instead of being thrown into the water and carried to its destination by the current,它与第壹种装置运用异样材料创造,但不是要把它参加河中由水流动带到裂口处。it is laid out flat on a levee that is in danger of being overtopped and thus eroded by the river it is supposed to contain.壹旦河水凶上涨漫度过堤坝就会对泥土坝形成冲折本,危及堤坝的装置然。此雕刻却以把REPEL铺在堤坝顶上维养护堤坝。In normal circumstances merely placing a layer of protective material on top of a levee in this way would not do much good.普畅通到来说假设条是此雕刻么在堤坝顶部铺壹层相像的维养护材料在漫坝时不会宗到什么干用。The force of the water would quickly wash it away.水流动的力气会很快将它们冲掉落。However, REPEL has a series of tubes that sit on top of it and can be pumped full of water in a manner similar to that employed by PLUG.而ERPEL在其上部装上了壹系列的粗管,却以如第壹种装置壹样往此雕刻些粗管里灌水。The weight of these tubes holds the protective layer in place, while the gaps between the tubes permit the overspill to escape.此雕刻些装满水的管儿子的分量趾以永恒住此雕刻些维养护层,漫出产堤坝的河水却以在粗管间溢度过。Some flooding from that overspill results—but not as much as if the spill were allowed to erode and destroy the levee itself.此雕刻么固然拥有壹些河水漫出产堤坝,但形成的损违反会远远小于鉴于土坝在水流动腐折本下而垮塌产生的结实。Yet simply halting floodwaters and preventing short-term damage is not enough.条是条是堵塞住了洪流动备止了当前的灾荒并不完备。Neither PLUG nor REPEL can be used permanently.PLUG与REPEL邑是应急设备。It is the third of Mr Laskas acronyms, REHAB,弹奏斯卡先生还拥有第叁套装置,其首字母亲收缩微语是REHAB,又正好拥有重建之意。that allows engineers to make permanent repairs.工程师们却以用它对堤坝终止永世性的修骈。The Rapidly Emplaced Hydraulic Arch Barrier,该装置的全称叫做便置式拱形折流动坝。made of the same material as the other two devices, can be put in place around a plugged breach to keep it sealed and dry once the PLUG has been removed.它与前两种装置采取相反材料创造,却以围住壹个被临时查封堵塞住的堤坝裂口,使之与河水隔开。此雕刻就却以将PLUG此雕刻个塞儿子撤掉落,吹干堤坝裂口处的泥土。First, the arch is filled with air and floated to the desired location.比值先将此雕刻个拱坝流入空气使它却以漂到指定的位置。Then, once it is in place, it is partly flooded and allowed to sink to the riverbed around the breach, making a tight seal.壹旦到位,就向拱坝内灌水使它沉到裂口四周的河床上,结合了壹道严稠密的围堰。That done, a second set of pumps evacuates the gap between the arch and the PLUG, allowing workers access to the site.此雕刻些工干完成后,又调用壹组水泵将拱坝与堵塞塞间的水整顿个吧嗒干,堤坝尽先修工人们就却以进入即兴场终止堤坝的修骈干业了。Not only is installing REHAB easier and faster than building a conventional temporary dam, it is also less wasteful.设置壹道重建拱坝与揪容例的方法建临时围堰比较不单节时、节工,同时还节钱。A conventional temporary structure is demolished after use.揪容例的临时围堰在完工后还需寻求撤摒除。REHAB can simply be floated away and reused—it will have rehabilitated itself, in other words.此雕刻种重建拱坝用完后条需充气排水就却浮宗拖走重行运用,此雕刻也坚硬是说,此雕刻种拱坝是却重骈运用的。 /201305/237757

  Business商报道Schumpeter熊彼得Fighting the flab减肥名著战Corporate headquarters have put on weight, and need to slim down again企业的尽部体积收收缩,需寻求又次瘦身“ONE of the most extraordinary corporate centres in America.”“此雕刻能是美国最零数异的企业尽部了 。”This is how Trian Partners, a disgruntled shareholder of PepsiCo, described the headquarters of the snacks-to-soft-drinks company in a recent letter to its board.特利装置基金办公司在给佰事公司的董事会近日到的壹查封信中搂怨道。特里装置基金是此雕刻个销特价而沽洞食和绵软饮料的公司的股东方。Set amid lakes and fountains in 100 acres of wealthy Westchester County, New York, PepsiCos HQ features seven interconnected three-storey office buildings designed in the 1960s by Edward Durell Stone, a pioneering American modernist architect.佰事尽部位于扣儿条约市负拥局部威彻斯特郡,背靠落于湖泊与喷泉之间,占地条约100英亩,中心是七座相包的叁层办公楼,此楼是美国当代当世主义前驱修盖师酷爱道德华?斯畅通在1960年设计的。Its crown jewel is the Donald M. Kendall Sculpture Gardens, named after a former chief executive, which has works by artists such as Alexander Calder, Henry Moore and Auguste Rodin.佰事尽部最招逗人的景不清雅坚硬是以其前尽经纪Donald M. Kendall名字命名,由Alexander Calder、Henry Moore 和Auguste Rodin叁位艺术家壹道修盖的雕塑村儿子园。Mr Kendall reportedly intended the garden to reflect his vision for the company by creating an atmosphere of “stability, creativity and experimentation”.据报道称,Kendall是想要此雕刻用村儿子园能展即兴他对公司的设想,即“摆荡,花样翻新和试验性”。Two years ago PepsiCo began a 243m upgrade of the complex to make space for more staff and “create a more collaborative and innovative work environment”.两年前,为了给更多的职工发皓当空,并“确立壹个更有益合干与花样翻新的工干环境”,的佰事公司斥资2.43亿美元,末了尾对其尽部的修盖帮终止破开格提升。Trian, run by Nelson Peltz, a veteran activist investor, thinks shareholders would be better served by selling it and shedding many of its 1,100 workers, as part of a broader cost-cutting and productivity-boosting strategy that would see PepsiCo split in two.由资深生触动投资人纳尔逊佩尔茨运干的特里装置基金则认为,佰事应当把尽部卖掉落,并将就中的1100名职工裁剪掉落父亲半,以此干为消减本钱和提升消费力方案的壹派断,佰事外面部对此产生了不符。The raiders of the 1980s, who made fortunes by seizing and shaping up flabby conglomerates, were supposed to have put an end to corporate extravagance and administrative bloat.上世纪八什年代的那些恶行意收买进者经度过给痴肥的企业集儿子团弄瘦身尽先掠了微少量利更加,人们本认为企业铺张芡费的习惯和办人员度过剩的效实曾经在那时辰被终结了。But PepsiCo is not alone in now being accused of these.不过,像佰事此雕刻么因此雕刻类效实被诟病的公司不在微少半。A recent report by Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm, reckoned that Coca-Cola, which is spending 100m on upgrading its home in Atlanta, has overheads that are 30% of sales, almost as high as PepsiCos 32%.调研公司Sanford C. Bernstein近日到的壹份报告指出产,却口却乐公司正破开费1亿美元破开格提升其在亚特兰父亲的尽部,却口却乐公司的日日性开占其营业额的30%,佰事的则为32%。Activist investors such as Trian, which also has its guns trained on DuPont, a chemicals firm, may find inspiration in other examples highlighted by Bernstein.像特里装置此雕刻么的生触动投资者又把矛头指向了募化学公司DuPont,后者能是受到了Bernstein强大调的那些背面教养材的展发。Procter amp; Gambles overheads ratio is far higher than that of its consumer-goods archrival, Unilever; so is Estee Lauders compared with that of LOreal, another big cosmetics firm.日用消费品公司Procter amp; Gambles的日日性开比比值比其首要竞赛对方Unilever要高出产壹父亲截;装扮品性业父亲公司Estee Lauder同LOreal也结合了此雕刻么鲜皓的对比。It is hard to think of many big companies that could not benefit from taking a fresh look at their overheads.假设那些父亲公司能重行谛视己己己的费开,壹定却以获更加良多。One, perhaps, is Mars, a family-run confectioner with a tiny, frugal HQ in suburban Virginia.玛氏食品公司坚硬是壹个很好的例儿子,此雕刻个家族企业在弗吉尼亚州野外面的尽部信朴而稀致。Another is Berkshire Hathaway.伯克希尔哈哈撒韦公司亦个很好的例儿子。In this years letter to shareholders, sent last month, the conglomerates boss, Warren Buffett, broke a long-standing “no pictures” policy to show off his head-office team, just 24 strong.上个月,此雕刻个父亲集儿子团弄的的老板巴菲特在早年给股东方的信中打破开了其临时以后到的“无相片”的传统,展即兴了他但由24名稀英结合的尽公司团弄队。Mr Buffetts last big acquisition, of Heinz, was made in partnership with 3G, a Brazilian private-equity firm whose boss, Jorge Paulo Lemann, has a passion for cost-saving.巴菲特上壹笔父亲量收买进,坚硬是与巴正西的私募股权公司3G本钱合伙收买进亨氏食品。3G的老板Jorge Paulo Lemann很暖和衷于消减本钱。Heinz had aly undergone a round of cuts under pressure from Mr Peltz.固然亨氏之前就曾经在Peltz的催促下终止了壹轮开消减。But 3G found plenty more to trim, as it applied its “zero-based budgeting” approach, in which all spending must be justified from first principles each year.但3G认为还拥有很多中需寻求消减,才干到臻它的“洞基准预算”规范,即每壹项开邑要以完成公司的年度目的为目的。Swathes of managerial jobs were axed, as was the companys “aviation department”, which ran its corporate planes.亨氏父亲片的办层职位被砍掉落,就中带拥有办企业飞机的“航空部”。Mr Buffett is impressed: hitherto he has mostly bought well-run firms that he could largely leave alone, but now he wants to do more deals like the Heinz one.巴菲特对此印象深雕刻,想到来条会收买进那些己我运转良好,不需寻求他又多加以关怀的企业,但当今,他想多做几次像亨氏此雕刻么的收买进。Of course there are many reasons, other than differing levels of bloat, why businesses vary greatly in which functions are performed centrally, and in how many people and other resources are needed at head office.摒除了不一程度的人员度过剩之外面,天然还拥有其他缘由,形成了各企业在本能机能的重心取向方面和尽部需寻求的人工物力多鲜方面仟差万佩。But there is evidence that companies have piled on the pounds in recent years.条是,确实拥有据年来过到来企业拥有增重的趋势。A study by Sven Kunisch, a management professor at the University of St Gallen in Switzerland, and others looked at the head offices of 761 big companies in Europe and America between 2007 and 2010.瑞士圣加以伦父亲学的办学教养任命Sven Kunisch及其同事以2007到2010年全球761个父亲型企业的尽部为对象终止了壹项切磋。By the end of the period, a quarter of them had more than 600 staff at HQ, whereas another quarter had fewer than 63.截到岁末儿子,四分之壹的公司拥拥有超越600名职工,而另壹个季度曾经不到63人。Two-thirds of the firms said they had made significant changes during the period, generally strengthening centralised control over their divisions.叁分之二的公司体即兴他们曾经得到了严重变募化,普遍增强大中集儿子权把持他们所存放在的不符。Some 44% of the firms had increased the headcount at HQ, whereas only 28% trimmed.截到2010年,就中四分之壹的企业邑增强大了对其分部的把持,条约44%的企业邑添加以其尽部的人数,而条要28%终止了消减。Of the 21 countries in which the head offices were located, only ones based in Denmark and Greece reduced staff numbers on average.在此切磋触及到的21个国度中,条要位于丹麦和希腊两国的企业尽部的平分职工人数增添以了。All this at a time, in the wake of the financial crisis, when companies were striving to protect their profit margins by cutting jobs elsewhere in the workforce.而此雕刻亦鉴于金融危急的影响,企业为了保其盈利比值,条得裁剪汰以增添以工钱出产。All aboard the mother ship登上母亲舰What might explain the return of head-office bloat?是什么缘由又次形成了企业尽部的收收缩呢?The crusade for leaner, more focused companies, which began in the 1980s, ran out of steam after the turn of the century.上世纪美国刮宗了壹场首要集儿子合于企业的稀信运触动,从80年代壹直持续到世纪末了。And three other issues moved up bosses agendas, each seemingly justifying extra staff at HQ: globalisation meant that the mother ship had more far-flung operations to oversee; new digital technology made it easier, in theory, to centralise control and oversight; and, starting with Americas Sarbanes-Oxley act in 2002, deregulation gave way to a growing regulatory burden, bringing with it a bigger head-office compliance operation.叁个缘由使得此雕刻壹运触动末了尾转向,每个缘由如同邑为企业添加以尽部的富余人员供了靠边性:全球募化意味着企业尽部需寻求接管更多的海外面事情;数字技术即兴实上也为企业实施集儿子合把持和监督供了便当;佩的,美国在2002颁布匹的萨客法案也减轻了企业接管担负,企业为了终止合规操干,不得不扩展尽部。Various events, from the September 11th 2001 terror attacks to the financial crisis, may have made bosses view the world as an increasingly complicated and uncertain place.从2001年的911事情到后头的的金融危急,各种不测事情曾经让企业家们觉得此雕刻个世界正变得越到来越骈杂反复无常。It would not be surprising if many of them responded in the same way as Jeffrey Immelt, the boss of GE: in his latest annual letter to shareholders, he confessed that “We attempted to manage volatility through layers and reviewers.因此某些人的体即兴得像畅通用电气的的老板伊梅尔特壹样实则并不零数异:在近日到的壹查封给股东方的年度致股东方信中,他终止了己我反节:“我们曾祈求用层层复核到来把持不决定性。Like many companies we were guilty of countering complexity with complexity…more inspectors, multiple reviewers.”像很多公司壹样,用骈杂的体系到来处理骈杂的效实,我们对此感触很搂歉意…更多的接管人员,更多的复核者。”The result was a “higher cost structure, an artificial sense of risk management, and we were insulating our people from the heat of the market.” Mr Immelt has now decided to reverse course.此雕刻么的结实坚硬是“高本钱的构造,壹种风险违反掉落把持的错觉,同时还把我们的职工同市场割裂宗到来。”GE has launched a new simplification strategy, with a goal of cutting overheads to 12% of sales from 16%, including a 45% reduction in the cost of the corporate headquarters, by 2016.伊梅尔特当今决议转变标注的目的。畅通用曾经开展了壹个新的稀信方案,目的是在2016年之前把开从占营业额16%减到12%,就中带拥有把企业尽部的开消减45%。Other bosses would be wise to do the same, or expect to have Mr Peltz and his fellow activists on their case.其他的企业老板最好也去仿效伊梅尔特,不然条好等着成为佩尔茨等的壹群生触动投资人的靶儿子了。 /201403/282100

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